# Number Box 1 to 10

These Number Boxes for numbers 1-10 model the concept of hierarchical inclusion as well as the fact-families for each number up to 10. Early on, students can be challenged to put the blocks in order, using size relationships to create the “staircase” for each number without the scaffolding provided by the Counting Board. Children are encouraged to verbalize their thinking. They realize that the number 5 is made up of smaller numbers 1-4 (hierarchical inclusion) and that there are many ways to make each number. Children discover that only even numbers can be represented by two of the same size block (doubles facts).

The Number Boxes are used to teach:

• Sequencing
• Hierarchical inclusion
• Fact families for the numbers up to 10
• The relationship between addition and subtraction
• Fact fluency within 10
• Problem solving with addition and subtraction within 10

## Discovering all the combinations to make a number

Children discover that there are many ways to make a number and all the patterns in those combinations: each block appears twice, providing a visual presentation of the associative principle (“turn-around” facts), and the inverse relationship between the two addends (one staircase goes up while the other side goes down).